SOURCES CITED For Vǫluspá’s Gullveig, Heiðr and narrator: one, two or three?

May 15, 2020:  I decided to create a new page with the sources, so that the sources will immediately precede the two forthcoming blog-posts on Vǫluspá.  Here is a link to that page:


March 26, 2020:  Oh, yeah.  Don’t pay any attention to the list of sources cited below, folks.  It’s due to be replaced very soon, a couple of weeks from now maybe, by another one, for two upcoming blog-posts on Vǫluspá.  Later, notes for the two blog-posts will also be added.  The first blog-post will discuss my sources and a few critical points regarding the poem; the second will be a walk-through the poem with a view to opening up the paradigms of possible meaning.  We will never know who the poet was or what they intended, but I hope to show a range of possibilities based on what can be known.

Like everyone else, I am working in within the difficult circumstance of COVID 19 and its attendant ramifications, but I am working on it.  Thank you for your interest in my writings.


It’s commminnng… As I write this, the last source I have in mind to cite for my upcoming blog-post on Gullveig & Co is  SKIÐARIMA, by Theo Homan, a copy of which is crossing the border from Illinois post-haste.  As is my wont for lengthy posts, I am publishing the list of sources separately.  I am confident that the last year’s intensive study and thought will pay off in a plausible and original model for the three elements in the poem I have named in the title.

Boyer, Régis.  ‘On the Composition of Vǫluspá,’ in Edda:  A Collection of Essays.  R.J. Glendinning, Haraldur Bessason, Editors.  University of Manitoba Press, 1985. Pages 117 – 133

Cleasby, Richard, Vigfússon, Guðbrandur (and supplement by Sir William A. Craigie).  An Icelandic-English Dictionary, Second Edition.  Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1957, reprinted 1962.

Dronke, Ursula (1).  Transl.  The Poetic Edda: Volume II Mythological Poems.  Oxford University Press, reprinted 2001.

Dronke, Ursula (2).  Translator. The Poetic Edda: Volume III Mythological Poems II.  Oxford University Press, 2011

Eggertsson, Jochum Magnús (Skuggi).  Sorcerer’s Screed:  The Icelandic Book of Magic Spells.  English translation by Philip Roughton.  Lesstofan, 2016

Faulkes, Anthony (1).  Translator.  Snorri Sturluson:  Edda.  Everyman edition, pub. by J.M. Dent, London and Charles E. Tuttle, Vermont, paperback reissued, 1995.  ISBN-10: 0460876163; ISBN-13: 978-0460876162  (I’ve included the ISBN numbers for this source because it can be difficult to discern which of the ‘Edda’ editions has all three parts of Snorri’s work: Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál and Háttatal.  Very few editions in English of Snorri’s ‘Prose Edda’ include Háttatal.

Faulkes, Anthony (2). Snorri Sturluson’s Edda: Háttatal  2nd edition.  Anthony Faulkes, Editor.  Viking Society for Northern Research, London, 2007.

Flowers, Stephen.  (ed./trans.) The Rune-Poems, Vol I: Introduction, Texts, Translations and Glossary.  Rûna-Raven Press, 2002.

Flowers, Stephen E.  (B)  Icelandic Magic:  Practical Secrets of the Northern Grimoires.  Inner Traditions, 2016

Formanna  Sögur [Legendary Sagas] Volume IX:  Sögur Hákonar Sverrissonar, Guttorms Sigurðarsonar,

Ínga Bárðarsonar and  Hákonar Hákonarsonar til falls Skúla hertoga.  Edited by F. Magnússon and C.C. Rafn.  Kaupmannahöfn, 1835.  Links to all free downloads of the Legendary Sagas may be found here:

Frankis, John.  ‘The Hild-story (Hjaðningavíg) as a saga-motif.’  Pre-print paper from The Fourth International Saga Conference, 1979.

Hallberg, Peter.  ‘Elements of Imagery’ in Edda:  A Collection of Essays.  R.J. Glendinning, Haraldur Bessason, Editors.  University of Manitoba Press, 1985.  Pages 47 – 85

Hollander, Lee M. (a) transl.  Heimskringla:  History of the Kings of Norway by Snorri Sturluson.  University of Texas Press, Austin, paperback, 2013.

Hollander, Lee M.  (b) transl.  The Poetic Edda, Second Edition, Revised.  University of Texas Press, Austin, paperback, 2011

Homan, Theo.  SKIÐARIMA. An Inquiry into the Written and Printed Texts, References and Commentaries. With an Edition and an English Translation.  Amsterdamer Publikationen zur Sprache und Literatur, 1975

Guðmundsdóttir, Aðalheiður.  ‘Saga Motifs on Gotland Picture Stones:  The Case of Hildr Högnadóttir,’ in Gotland’s Picture Stones:  Bearers of an Enigmatic Legacy.  Gotländskt Arkiv, (2012), Reprints from the Friends of the Historical Museum Association, Volume 84.

Heide, Eldar.  ‘Spinning seiðr’ in Old Norse religion in long-term perspectives.  Anders Andrén, Kristina Jennbertand Catharina Raudvere, Editors.  Nordic Academic Press, 2006.  Pages 164 – 170,%20Lund%20conf%20Heide.pdf

Kirby, W.F.  ‘The Vǫluspá:  the Sybil’s Lay in the Edda of Sæmund,’ in Saga-Book of the Viking Society for Northern Research, Volume VIII.  (1913 – 1914)

Krell, Sydney A.  ‘Exploring the Emotive versus the Scholarly:  an Investigation of the Kennings in Ragnarsdrápa and Øxarflokkr,’ Master Thesis in Nordic Viking and Medieval Culture, Universitet i Oslo, Fall 2013

Jakobsdóttir, Svava.  ‘”Gunnlǫð and the Precious Mead” (Hávamál),’ in The Poetic Edda:  Essays on Old Norse Mythology.  Paul Acker and Carolyne Larrington, Editors.  Routledge, 2002.  Pages 27 – 57

Liestøl, Knut.  The Origin of the Icelandic Family Sagas.  Transl. by A.G. Jayne.  Aschehoug & Co. 1930

Lindow, John.  Norse Mythology:  a Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals and Beliefs.  Oxford University Press paperback, 2002.

Lönnroth, Lars.  ‘The Riddles of the Rök-Stone: A Structural Approach (1977),’ in The Academy of Odin by Lars Lönnroth, p. 279 – 356.  University Press of Southern Denmark, 2011

Markey, Tom. ‘Studies in Runic Origins 2: From Gods to Men,’ in American Journal of Germanic Linguistics & Literatures 11.2 (1999): 131-203  Available for purchase from:

Malone, Kemp.  ‘An Anglo-Latin Version of the Hjađningavíg,’ Speculum, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Jan., 1964), pp. 35-44, Stable URL:

McKinnell, John.  (1) ‘On Heiðr and Gullveig,’ in Saga Book Volume XXV.  Viking Society for Northern Research, University College, London, 1998 – 2001.  [Downloadable for free here:    ]

McKinnell, John.  (2)  Meeting the Other in Norse Myth and Legend.  D.S. Brewer, Cambridge, 2005.

McKinnell, John.  (3)  Essays on Eddic Poetry.  University of Toronto Press, 2014.

McKinnell, John.  (4)  ‘Heathenism in Vǫluspá:  A Preliminary Survey,’ in The Nordic Apocalypse:  Approaches to Vǫluspá and Nordic Days of Judgement.  Pages 93 – 110.  Brepols, Belgium, 2013.

McKinnell, John.  (5)  ‘Why Did Christians Continue to Find Pagan Myths Useful?’ in Reflections on Old Norse Myths. Studies in Viking and Medieval Scandinavia (VMSS 1)).  (P. Hermann, J. P. Schjødt, R. Tranum Kristensen, Editors.  Brepols, 2007.

McKinnell, John (6).  Both one and many : essays on change and variety in Late Norse Heathenism.  Il calamo (1994)

Mitchell, Stephen A.  Witchcraft and Magic in the Nordic Middle Ages.  University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

Ólason, Vésteinn, ‘Vǫluspá and Time,’ in The Nordic Apocalypse:  Approaches to Vǫluspá and Nordic Days of Judgment.  Terry Gunnell, Annette Lassen, Editors.  Brepols Publishers, Turnhout Belgium, 2013.  Pages 25 – 44

Pétursson, Pétur.  ‘Manifest and latent Biblical Themes in Vǫluspá,’ in in The Nordic Apocalypse:  Approaches to Vǫluspá and Nordic Days of Judgement.  Pages 185 – 201.  Brepols, Belgium, 2013.

Motz, Lotte.  ‘Gullveig’s Ordeal:  A New Interpretation’ in  Arkiv för nordisk filologi 108:80-92 [ Article is available for free as a downloadable PDF:  ]

Nordal, Sigurður.  ‘Three Essays on Völuspá,’ translated by B.S. Benedikz and J.S. McKinnell, in Saga –Book XVIII (1970 – 71), p. 79 – 135.

Nordal, Sigurður.  (B)  ed.  Vǫluspá, text, commentary, notes and glossary.  English translation of notes, commentary and glossary by B. S. Benedikz and John McKinnell.  Durham and St. Andrews Medieval Texts Number 1,  reprinted with corrections 1980

North, Richard.  Ed. and transl. ‘Heðinn’s Everlasting Battle’ in ‘Bragi’s Eulogy on Ragnarr,’ in Longman Anthology of Old English, Old Icelandic and Anglo-Norman Literatures.  Editors, Richard North, Joe Allard, Patricia Gillies.  Longman of Pearson Education Limited, 2011, p. 131 – 133

Quinn, Judy (1).  ‘Hildr Prepares a Bed for Most-Helmet Damagers…’ in Reflections on Old Norse Myths. Studies in Viking and Medieval Scandinavia (VMSS 1)) (P. Hermann, J. P. Schjødt, R. Tranum Kristensen, Editors.  Brepols, 2007.  Pages 95 – 118

Quinn, Judy (2).  ‘Sǫrla þáttr and the rewriting of the revivification myth,’ preprint paper from The Thirteenth International Saga Conference, Durham / York.  John McKinnell, David Ashurst and Donata Kick, Editors. (Durham: Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2006).

Rowe, Elizabeth Ashman.  ‘Sörla þáttr:  The Literary Adaptation of Myth and Legend,’ in Saga-Book Vol. XXVI. p. 38 – 66.  The Viking Society for Northern Research, 2002 available as a free download here:

Samplonius, Kees.  ‘The War of the Æsir and the Vanir:  A Note on Sources,’  in TijdSchrift voor Skandinavistiek vol. 22 (2001), nr. 1.

Saga Sverris konúngs

Sögur Noregs konúnga frá Magnúsi Berfætta til Magnúss Erlíngssonar

Strid, Jean Paul (with Olof Erikson, photos).  Text translated from Swedish into English by Lennart Strid.  Rune Stones.  Edition Erikson, Malmö, Sweden, 1991

Ström, Folke.  ‘Nīð, Ergi and Old Norse Moral Attitudes.’  The Dorothea Coke Memorial Lecture, delivered at University College in London, May 10, 1973.  Published for the College by the Viking Society for Northern Research, London.  [downloadable for free here:,%20ergi%20and%20Old%20Norse%20moral%20attitudes.pdf  ]

Tolley, Clive.  Shamanism in Norse Myth and Magic, Volumes I and II.   (FF Communications, vol. cxliv2, no 297)  Academia Scientiarum Fennica (2009)

Vigfússon, Gudbrand and Powell, F. York, editors and translators.  Corpus Poeticum Boreale, The Poetry of the Old Northern Tongue, from the Earliest Times to the Thirteenth Century, Vol. I Eddic Poetry and Vol.  II, Court Poetry.   Oxford at Clarendon, 1883

background by ; eye by ; bottle by ; wolf by ; raven courtesy of ; silhouette by 


About Marnie Tunay

I'm not here much at the moment. You can visit my web-sites to learn more about me.
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